Street Children Impoverished

In Manila, between 250,000 and 1 million children live in the streets, left to fend for themselves. the number of street children has increased considerably in recent years, this is unfortunately due to various factors: poverty, family structure, migration… Street children, from birth to 18 years, are completely on their own. They are particularly vulnerable to forced labor, child prostitution, sexual and physical abuse, early pregnancy and many of them show severe symptoms of depression and anxiety. Not all of the street children are orphans. They often live with their parents on the sidewalks of Manila.

Forced Labor

Child labor is work that deprives children of their childhood, their potential and their dignity, and that is harmful to physical and mental development. In the Philippines, there are 2.1 million child laborers aged 5-17 years old based on the 2011 Survey on Children  of the Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA) . About 95% of the children are in hazardous work. 69% of these are aged 15-17 years old, beyond the minimum allowable age for work but still exposed to hazardous work.

Children in the Philippines engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking, and in armed conflict. Children also perform dangerous tasks in agriculture and gold mining. The Survey on Children indicated that 3.2 million children ages 5 to 17 years engage in child labor, of which approximately 3 million engage in hazardous work. Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in the Philippines.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education
ChildrenAgePercent
Working (% and population)5 to 147.5 (1,549,677)
Working children by sector5 to 14
Agriculture54.1
Industry5.3
Services40.5
Attending School (%)5 to 1493.7
Combining Work and School (%)7 to 147.8
Primary Completion Rate (%)104.0

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2016, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2019. 
Source for all other data: International Labor Organization’s analysis of statistics from Survey on Children (SOC), 2011. 

  • Work burdens the child; too heavy for child’s age and capabilities
  • Child works unsupervised or supervised by abusive adults
  • Very long hours of work; child has limited or no time for school, play or rest
  • Workplace poses hazards to child’s health and life
  • Child is subject to psychological, verbal, or physical/sexual abuse
  • Child is forced by circumstances or by coercive individuals to work
  • Limited or no positive rewards for the child
  • Child’s work is excluded from legislation, social security and benefits
  • Child’s work is used for exploitative, subversive or clandestine operations or disguised illegal activities

Child Prostitution

The use of children in illicit activities, specifically in the distribution, procuring, and selling of drugs, including a cheap methamphetamine known as shabu, has become a cause for concern in the Philippines. The government continued its anti-drug campaign, which began in 2016 and did not adequately protect children engaged in drug trafficking from inappropriate incarceration, penalties, or physical harm.  

Children, primarily girls, are trafficked domestically from rural communities to urban centers and tourist destinations for the purpose of domestic work and commercial sexual exploitation. Research indicates that the Philippines is the top global Internet source of online commercial sexual exploitation of children (OSEC). Children are induced to perform sex acts at the direction of paying foreigners and local Filipinos for live Internet broadcasts which usually take place in small Internet cafes, private homes, or windowless dungeon-like buildings commonly known as “cybersex dens.” According to data on OSEC victims collected by the International Justice Mission Philippines, the average age of victims was 16 to 18 years, and the median age of the victims at the time of rescue was 12. Additionally, according to the most recent available data from 2018 the Philippines Department of Justice’s Office of Cyber crimes reviewed over 576,000 reports of online child abuse and cyber crimes from the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children.    

A emerging crime in the Philippines, where thousands of youngsters are seen to be at risk exploited by online streaming of child sex abuse.

Credit: Channel News Asia

In Manila veteran chief of the Philippines Victor Lorenzo has spent much of his life chasing down criminals and helping their victims. For a law enforcer with years of experience, much of what he does is now routine.

Unfortunately with the emergence of cyber criminal activity there is one type of crime which the veteran chief of the Philippines’ cyber investigation unit has difficulty coming to terms with. 

“Every case is shocking,” Lorenzo said, in his office at the Cybercrime Division of the National Bureau of Investigation on Taft Avenue. A shiny figurine of Batman gleams amid piles of documents on his desk. Another busy day. Another suspect. More crimes. 

“No matter how hard you try to shield yourself from emotions, you just can’t. It’s very painful on our part as a human being whenever we see children performing live in front of a camera.”

Lorenzo was referring to the horrific growing number of child cybersex cases, where pedophiles based overseas disgustingly pay local traffickers that prey on unfortunate street children to molest and live-stream the sexual abuse. In some cases poor parents prostitute their children on the internet.

Meet Sweetie Computer Generated Predator Bait

Sweetie is a computer animated child that was created by children’s rights organization Terre des hommes as a sting operation. It was used to lure online sexual predators into providing personally-identifiable information, so that this information could then be reported to law enforcement agencies.


“Sweetie” lured hundreds of alleged pedophiles — including 254 Americans — into offering money to have the girl perform online sex acts, a group that fights child sex abuse Terre des Hommes said.

Although national and international laws ban online child sex tourism, Terre des Hommes claims only six perpetrators have been convicted of this crime, which appears to be the latest trend in online child exploitation

Albert Jaap Van Santbrink, the group’s director said “If we were able to identify 1,000 individuals in just two and a half months last summer, think how many of these people could be identified if governments took a more active approach,” he also said “Most Americans have also been recorded from the webcam, so we can actually see who they are and see their family pictures in the background,That’s the scariest part. They are fathers, husbands, partners, ordinary people you meet every day.” This is huge considering the number of predators this organization has taking off the street preventing them from engaging in sexual exploitation of Filipino children.

Suspected pedophiles are tricked into believing they are engaging in an perverted online chat with a 10-year-old girl from the Philippines named Sweetie, when in fact they are conversing with a team of four researches in the outskirts of Amsterdam.

The criminals find these children through social media websites and chat rooms, then they use untraceable prepaid credit cards and online aliases to get victims to perform sexual acts.

Street Children Recruited By Terrorist

Child soldiering by non-government militias and terrorist organizations, predominately in the southern island of Mindanao, remains a concern. In Marawi City, many children as young as age 7 were recruited, paid, and trained as fighters by the Maute Group, a terrorist organization linked to the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS). Additionally, research suggests that the Abu Sayyaf Group, the Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters, the Moro National Liberation Front, the National Democratic Front of the Philippines, and the New People’s Army continue to recruit children from schools for use as human shields, cooks, and fighters, while offering religious education and material incentives to join.

Photo by Viktor Forgacs 

Why are children recruited?
The reasons for the recruitment of children by terrorist and violent extremist groups are complex and multifaceted, and they may vary depending on the situation. It also appears that children are not merely recruited alongside adults, but are specifically targeted, as the use of children provides various advantages to the groups.

The demographic shift in poor countries, in part an increase in the percentage of street children fending for themselves in the overall population, makes the street children in the Philippines available for recruitment and abduction. For instance, in each of the countries affected by the Boko Haram crisis, children constitute over 50%, and in certain cases 60%, of the overall population. Numerous bombings have been carried out in and around Metro Manila, though several hundred kilometers from the conflict in the southern regions, due to its political importance. In the period from 2000 to 2007 attacks killed nearly 400 Filipino civilians and injured well over 1500 more, which is more casualties than what is caused by bombings and other attacks in Indonesia, Morocco, Spain, Turkey, or Britain during the same period.

This is not just about European or American children being victims of attacks by the so-called Islamic State. Young people who are victims of Western military attacks are being used as pawns in the fight against terrorism too. strictly propaganda look back a few years back at US president Donald Trump’s disastrous first military operation. The January 29 raid on the village of al-Ghayil in Yemen saw 25 civilians killed, including nine children. While the White House has insisted that it obtained “valuable information” from the operation – which was intended to gather intelligence on al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP) – no evidence has been produced in support of this claim. the children in Yemen still suffer from the conflicts.

In addition, any evaluation of an operation’s success must also consider its secondary effects. In particular, how they supply groups like AQAP and IS with ammunition for their propaganda

Propaganda is a huge part of how organisations like AQAP and IS motivate those looking to support them. AQAP in particular relies on social media and its online magazine, Inspire, to encourage readers to launch attacks. Children are used as tools of propaganda – the killing of children by Western bombings is repeatedly used to promote its cause. In its very first issue three explicit photographs of dead children were printed, and this method continued up to and including the most recent issue in November 2016.

The sole purpose of these disturbing images is to stir anger and frustration among both existing and potential sympathisers, in order to justify attacks on the West.

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Barefoot & Hungry

You ever hear someone say that you couldn’t walk a mile in my shoes? try walking a mile without shoes this is the reality in the Philippines, where over 16 million children are dewormed twice a year to eliminate intestinal worms because they do not own adequate footwear. throughout my travels street children would approach me for pesos barefoot covered with a thick blackness that looked as if they had just walked through the ash of a volcanic eruption. it’s heart breaking to know that if you pull out a few pesos you will be swarmed by a number of children that you cannot help many of us face problems everyday but not to the extent of worrying when will we get our next meal or will our child survive from a infection caused by us not being able to protect our child from the elements and protect their feet. I think back to my childhood and much of what we all seen and or experienced playing this little piggy or stinky feet with a toddler and in other countries children are dying from disease and parasites caused from not being able to afford flip flops some wouldn’t ever dare spend such a little amount on shoes from the dollar store. as I child I remember being made fun of for attending school with a pair of payless finest until I visited Manila I had no idea how fortunate I was.

Near the Chinatown mall, Binondo, Manila I understood why the puddles of water were black, why where pavement did exist why it was so sticky, and why in many areas had the smell of urine and feces. the snitch of garbage and waste would sit into your clothes and after traveling deeper you would notice that children and adults were relieving themselves in the streets. for more than one reason this is a problem but a major consequence is Soil-transmitted helminth infections.

Soil- Transmitted Helminth Infections

according to the world health organization these are key facts about the infection.

  • Soil-transmitted helminth infections are caused by different species of parasitic worms.
  • They are transmitted by eggs present in human feces, which contaminate the soil in areas where sanitation is poor.
  • Approximately 1.5 billion people are infected with soil-transmitted helminths worldwide.
  • Infected children are nutritionally and physically impaired.
  • Control is based on periodical deworming to eliminate infecting worms, health education to prevent re-infection, and improved sanitation to reduce soil contamination with infective eggs.
  • Safe and effective medicines are available to control infection.

Soil-transmitted helminth infections are among the most common infections worldwide and affect the poorest and most deprived communities. They are transmitted by eggs present in human faeces which in turn contaminate soil in areas where sanitation is poor. The main species that infect people are the roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides), the whipworm (Trichuris trichiura) and hookworms (Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale).

Global distribution and prevalence

More than 1.5 billion people, or 24% of the world’s population, are infected with soil-transmitted helminth infections worldwide. Infections are widely distributed in tropical and subtropical areas, with the greatest numbers occurring in sub-Saharan Africa, the Americas, China and East Asia.

Over 267 million preschool-age children and over 568 million school-age children live in areas where these parasites are intensively transmitted, and are in need of treatment and preventive interventions.

Transmission

Soil-transmitted helminths are transmitted by eggs that are passed in the faeces of infected people. Adult worms live in the intestine where they produce thousands of eggs each day. In areas that lack adequate sanitation, these eggs contaminate the soil. This can happen in several ways:

  • eggs that are attached to vegetables are ingested when the vegetables are not carefully cooked, washed or peeled;
  • eggs are ingested from contaminated water sources;
  • eggs are ingested by children who play in the contaminated soil and then put their hands in their mouths without washing them.

In addition, hookworm eggs hatch in the soil, releasing larvae that mature into a form that can actively penetrate the skin. People become infected with hookworm primarily by walking barefoot on the contaminated soil.

There is no direct person-to-person transmission, or infection from fresh feces, because eggs passed in feces need about 3 weeks to mature in the soil before they become infective. Since these worms do not multiply in the human host, re-infection occurs only as a result of contact with infective stages in the environment.

Nutritional effects

Soil-transmitted helminths impair the nutritional status of the people they infect in multiple ways.

  • The worms feed on host tissues, including blood, which leads to a loss of iron and protein.
  • Hookworms in addition cause chronic intestinal blood loss that can result in anaemia.
  • The worms increase malabsorption of nutrients. In addition, roundworm may possibly compete for vitamin A in the intestine.
  • Some soil-transmitted helminths also cause loss of appetite and, therefore, a reduction of nutritional intake and physical fitness. In particular, T. trichiura can cause diarrhoea and dysentery. Learn more

Travelers Witness The Importance Of Shoes

Travelers are being warned of the risks of walking barefoot on a beach “somewhere tropical” after a Canadian couple contracted a hookworm infection on holiday in the Dominican Republic.

The young pair from Ontario were staying in Punta Cana earlier this month when they returned from a stroll on the beach and noticed their feet were “incredibly itchy”. Upon their return to Canada, what they assumed were harmless bug bites developed into painful swollen blisters and unusual bumps on their toes.

The couple consulted two doctors who were unable to identify the cause of their condition, before they were seen by a third doctor who diagnosed the contraction of larva migrants – more commonly known as hookworms. The parasitic worms are found in soil contaminated with feces, typically in countries with poor sanitation and a warm, moist climate. as in the Philippines The disposal and treatment of human waste is a serious issue. The country’s National Sewerage and Septage Management Program (NSSMP) says around 55 people die every day in the country of nearly 100 million because more than 90 percent of the country’s sewage is not collected or treated properly.  Only 10 percent of the country’s population has access to piped sewage systems which is over 30 million people in the Philippines who do not have access to improved sanitation facilities

“The hookworm larvae can infect people if their bare skin comes into contact with the soil – for example, if you’re walking barefoot,” the NHS notes.

Hookworm infection detected in a stool sample

The couple, had to be put on medication (a drug called ivermectin) and had to walk on crutches, Between 576 million and 740 million people in the world are estimated to be infected with hookworms.

The symptoms of a hookworm infection

  • Most people infected with hookworm don’t have any symptoms.
  • The larvae of animal hookworms sometimes get into the skin, usually after lying on sand contaminated by animal faeces while on a beach holiday abroad.
  • These larvae are unable to go further into the body, but cause a slowly moving red line to appear on the skin.
  • This is called cutaneous larva migrans and can last several weeks. It’s a bit itchy, but doesn’t usually cause any harm.
  • People infected with human hookworm larvae occasionally have a less obvious itchy rash for a few days around the area of skin where the larvae penetrated.
  • Respiratory symptoms such as a cough and wheeziness may develop when the larvae reach the lungs, a few weeks after exposure.
  • Severe infections may cause abdominal (tummy) pain, diarrhoea, loss of appetite, weight loss, fatigue and anaemia. Blood loss leading to iron deficiency anaemia and protein loss are the most serious symptoms.

Source: NHS

How can it be prevented?

“On a beach, the safest place to walk or sit is below the high water line – on sand that has been recently ‘washed’ by the sea. This is especially important in parts of the world where there are many dogs roaming around on the beaches – as is common in the Philippines and other countries in Asia . This also applies in Africa – but really anywhere where sand can be contaminated with feces,” Doctors warn.

“If you’re travelling to a tropical or subtropical region of the world where hookworm infections are common, avoid walking barefoot in areas where there may be contaminated soil, and don’t touch soil or sand with your bare hands,” the NHS says.

“Good hygiene standards and effective sewage disposal systems are the reason hookworm infections aren’t commonly seen in developed countries such as the United States, although they may still be a problem in California”

California “Poop Patrol”

Strangely yes this is factual there is actually a patrol for this kind of thing in California have you ever seen the ads for we have an app for that? well in 2019 there seems to be a app for everything including poop.

The city of San Francisco has its official SF311 app, part of its “San Francisco at your Service” program, and last year a private developer introduced Snapcrap, which allows residents to upload a photo of an offending specimen directly to the SF311 website. This alerts the city’s new five-person “poop patrol,” which will follow up, presumably, with a smile.

Then there are the maps. At least three maps charting the location of “poop complaints” in the city have been assembled, the latest and best by the nonprofit Open the Books. Their map shows most of the city covered by brown pin dots, each marking a report to the Department of Public Works.

The website RealtyHop.com dubs San Francisco “the doo-doo capital of the U.S.” They noted that the city’s poop reports almost tripled between 2011 and 2017.

The problem draws attention because the poop increasingly comes not from dogs but from humans. In partial defense of his city, Curbed SF’s Adam Brinklow explains that the reports submitted to the city didn’t distinguish between human and dog excrement, and that there were 150,000 dogs and fewer than 10,000 homeless people within city limits. But he admits that homelessness was probably the leading edge of the problem in San Francisco as well as Los Angeles, where 36,000 people live on the streets, and many do their business there. Poverty is roots that grow a tree of growing problems and to kill a tree that causes problems you must kill the roots.

Shoes

by coming together we can prevent a situation in dire need that should not exist. by joining forces and creating awareness children of Payatas and the children effected by this situation can be saved from enduring infectious disease.

provide a child with shoes by clicking here raise contributions your way learn more

When your support enables us to provide children with the food they need, we are not exaggerating when we say it’s a start that will save lives forever.

Payatas

more commonly known as one of the country’s major dumpsite is home to over 120,000 kids who do not eat regularly. some even engage in “pagpag” practices eating leftover food in the 6.1 hectare dumpsite.

During my stay I learned Payatas was built on a landfill, and that junk shops are an integral part of the local economy. inside the shops holds a energy thriving with activity. piled high with bulging waste waiting to be purchased and processed to make transactions for consumption.

Credit: south china morning post

Shops pay 6 pesos or (10 US cents) per kilogram of waste. a team is then paid to pull out the waste and strip it. the waste is then sold for 18 pesos per kilogram. the PagPag is cleaned thoroughly to remove the smell. they then boil it or fry it where children will later eat it. other scraps such as chicken and pork deemed edible are set aside to be washed, cooked and sold in the neighborhood. that is PagPag “shake off the dirt” in Tagalog. discarded food “fit” for the hungry mouths in the slums of Payatas.

Scavengers can earn 250 pesos (US $5) a day depending on the volume of waste. Payatas takes it’s name from the phrase payat sa taas (“thin at the top”) because the soil is no good for rice crops. it is a community scarred by generations of hardship and struggle.

Lupang Pangako

I walked to a closed off area in Payatas known as Lupang Pangako or “promised land” the manager in the baranguy told me the story about a landslide of rubbish that took the lives of over 200 people. she stated the death toll was more than likely a higher number of men, women, and children consumed by the rubbish they scavenged to survive. the promised land where combustible substances within the rubbish would erupt unpredictably into geysers of flame it was shut down with untold hundreds buried below.

The Reality

According to Cristopher Sabal, a senior technical officer at the National Anti-Poverty Commission (NAPC). PagPag consumption is merely one expression of a multifaceted problem. ” A lot of our urban settlers are living near these dumpsites in informal settlements.” he says ” they are living in the most vulnerable areas, the danger zones. they don’t have access to livelihoods which would support them… enough to purchase the food requirements for the family that’s the reality”

” You cannot see the bacteria, you cannot see how dirty the food is just by looking at it” Sabal says ” PagPag is not nutritious… we can definitely say it has an impact in the stunting of growth in children. aside from that they would be at risk of acquiring critical diseases like Hepatitis A, Cholera, Typhoid”.

Promised Land

The dangers that I heard about in Payatas did not persuade me to stop what I came to Accomplish. it moved me and put me in a different perspective the land is said to be infernal, but the smiles of those children and the warm welcome during my arrival, showed me that the land definitely produced something and on that day I seen that there is hope to truly see a promised land thriving with healthy children.

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